The Katrina Rally continued today as September op-ex week kicked off, with the Nasdaq providing upside leadership in what was a mostly choppy, sideways session that saw the Dow close fractionally green and the S&P fractionally red. Bonds and energy futures declined, also extending their post-Katrina trends.
Volume breadth was mixed for most of the session, with declining NYSE shares roughly even with advancing shares, while on the Nasdaq, advancing volume held better than 2:1 for most of the day. Volatility rose despite the narrow range and firmness of price, and overall volume was solid on the exchanges while well below average on QQQQ.
Daily Dow Chart
The Dow has been rising from its Katrina low in the 10330 area in a daily cycle upphase that still has room to run, adding 4.38 points today to close at 10682.92. Trendline resistance is above current levels, in the 10775 area, and the Dow has been in a steady rise. The decline in oil has doubtless been supportive as well. Beyond the higher trendline resistance and strong oscillator picture, however, price is at confluence resistance going back to the July-August highs, and is at 20-day Bollinger resistance as well. Combined with the topping action in the weekly cycle (not shown), there's good reason for bulls to be cautious and close on their stops at current levels.
Daily S&P 500 Chart
The SPX kept everyone guessing today, printing a doji star at the top of Friday's tall candle, losing .92 for the day to close at 1240.56. Like the Dow, it's been in a steep daily cycle upphase, most of the gains produced by 4 strong up days, the first of which launched the Monday following Katrina's arrival. That upphase is closer to overbought than that of the Dow, and as with the Dow, the weekly cycle rollover suggests that we should not see the previous high for the year exceeded, for long or by much, if at all.
Daily Nasdaq Chart
The Nasdaq was the only index to finish with more than a fractional gain, adding 7.32 to close at 2182. This gain left a doji star as well, but at new highs for the move, its daily cycle indicators just now approaching overbought territory. Price exceeded upper Bollinger resistance intraday, closing right on it, with confluence resistance extending from here to 2200. Bears need a break below 2175 on a closing basis to break the daily cycle uptrend.
Daily TNX Chart
The Fed's open market operations on Friday were via 7-day repos, leaving no expiries for today. Just before 10AM, the Open Market Desk announced an overnight repo of $4.75 billion, all of which was a net add to its dealers' accounts, and equities lurched higher on the announcement. The stop-out rate was below 3.5, and with the next policy meeting fast approaching next week, time is running short for the Fed to begin walking up demand to the presumed 3.75% target. The longer that the Fed continues adding with the stop-out rate in the 3.5 area, the less likely a 25 bp hike becomes.
This is a difficult issue in the wake of Greenspan's Jackson Hole comments 2 weeks ago and the subsequent arrival of Katrina a day later. Presumably in recognition of the impressive rallies in energies and housing, Greenspan stated with rare unequivocal clarity that the Fed would seek to tighten in order to avoid stagflation. The arrival of Katrina, however, provided an external, non-discretionary tightening. Since then, the Fed has been generous via temporary repos as well as permanent additions to liquidity. Just today, there was another coupon pass in the amount of $1.1 billion following coupon and TIPS passes last week. The Fed's response to Katrina has been to add generous amounts of liquidity, and the equity markets have responded favorably so far. The need for money now seems to be outweighing inflationary impact of that money on energy and other asset prices.
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Prior to next week's meeting, there is the September 15th meeting on derivatives called by the Fed prior to the arrival of Katrina to address back office delays and errors in the processing of derivatives trades. There's no way to know whether or how the agenda for that meeting may have been affected by the hurricane. I discussed this meeting several weeks ago when it was first announced, but it's potentially very significant given the massive numbers in play via the derivative markets.
The Treasury auctioned $28 billion in 13- and 26-week bills today. Foreign central banks participated strongly, taking $11 billion of the total. The 13-week bills sold for 3.45% with a yield of 3.529% and generated 2.15 bids for each awarded. The bid-to-cover was less on the 26 week bills at 1.96, which sold for 3.67% at a 3.791% yield.
Ten year notes sold off today despite the temporary and permanent open market operations and the declines in energy futures, with the ten year note yield rising 4.6 bps to close at 4.169%. 4.14%-4.16% has been significant confluence in both directions, and was cleared today. The daily cycle upphase points toward next resistance at 4.2%, and then 4.25-6%, followed by 20-day Bollinger resistance at 4.3%.
Daily Chart of Crude oil
There was confusion over the weekend as OPEC was reported to be planning another increase to its production limit, this latest one by 2 million bpd to be announced at their September 19 meeting in Vienna. OPEC subsequently denied the report, but crude oil futures opened in the red on Monday just the same. These production limit hikes have been greeted with a yawn in the past, as they are little more than symbolic gestures- until the Saudis (or anyone else) can begin announcing verifiable capacity increases, these announcements will continue to be treated by the markets as mere talk. Furthermore, the loss of refinery capacity in the wake of Katrina has cost an estimated 38 million barrels of oil products this month, and worse yet, it has demonstrated the lack of capacity and fragility of infrastructure worldwide.
As Don Coxe has noted in recent comments, the continued push for tighter environmental controls has resulted in a trend of smaller refiners failing to maintain their facilities. As deadlines for compliance with stricter measures arrive, smaller refiners have had an incentive to simply abandon their installations. Katrina has exposed this consequent lack of spare refining capacity, particularly in Europe, which is a longer-term bullish factor for the price of refined petroleum products.
Over the weekend, estimates for Katrina-related repairs continued to fly fast and furious. Montpelier RE (MRH) described the hurricane as "a significant net loss for us," and estimated its impact at $450 million - $675 million for the company. Grand totals continue to come in the $100-$200 billion mark, and Congress has already authorized $62.5 billion in various aid and assistance. AON said today that the hurricane will likely be the largest loss ever, worldwide, for the property reinsurance industry. That company expects that the storm will impact future renewal negotiations. However fast or slow the Federal government's disaster response may have been, the allocation of contracts has gone through expeditiousl- Reuters reported that Shaw Group and HAL subsidiary Kellogg Brown and Root, both clients of lobbyist Joe Allbaugh, the President's former campaign manager, have already been signed up.
Crude oil has dropped to pre-Katrina levels from a high of 70.85, its daily cycle indicators in a bearish divergent downphase. It may strike some as odd that the destruction of so much infrastructure and shut-in of so much production would result in lower prices for crude oil and higher prices for equities. As Joe Granville said, "News is for suckers," and Soros has said that the key to successful investing is to identify and ride the trend whose premise is false while it is profitable. On a fundamental basis, the destruction of refining capacity results in a higher demand for finished petroleum products and a reduction in demand for inputs (such as crude oil). Beyond the short term, however, it's difficult to find anything bearish for the price of even crude oil. While the financial press attributed the decline in prices today to expectations of lower demand on slowing economic growth, it's worth noting that a great deal of consumption has little to do with economic output- consider much of suburban motoring as an example.
For the day, crude oil finished at a 5-week low, -.75 or 1.2% at 63.325. Unleaded gasoline closed -4.4% at a 2-week low of 1.8737 per gallon.
EBAY was down over 3% this morning on news that it has agreed to pay $1.3 billion in cash and $1.3 billion in stock for the Luxembourg VOIP provider, Skype. It intends to use the acquisition to add free web telephone calling capability to its online auctions. Skype, a private company, expects revenue of $60 million for 2005 and more than $200 million in 2006 and has a member base of 54 million callers. It expects to double that within a year. This is EBAY's largest acquisition to date, larger than its acquisition of Paypal. EBAY rallied later in the morning, however, to close +.83% at 38.94.
Oracle (ORCL) announced that it will be purchasing Siebel (SEBL) for $10.66 per share in cash in a $5.85 billion deal that will make it the largest CRM software provider in the world. Net of SEBL's $2.24 billion in cash, the deal is worth $3.61 billion, a 16.75% premium to Friday's closing price. ORCL expects the acquisition to be accretive to earnings by 2-3 cents in 2007. SEBL gained 12.71%, closing at 10.29.
In other news, ORCL's founder and CEO, Larry Ellison, announced that he will pay $100 million to charity to settle an insider trading suit, if ORCL's board approves it. On top of the $100 million will be a payment of $22.5 million to the lawyers who brought the case on behalf of shareholders. Yahoo reported that Ellison had sold approximately $900 million in ORCL stock in January 2001 at an average per share of $30.76. Less than 2 months later, the company issued a profit warning, causing the stock to fall to $16.88. In the wake of these announcements, Moody's placed ORCL's long term ratings on review for a possible downgrade. ORCL closed +1.58% at 13.49.
Overnight, it was reported that Northwest Airlines (NWAC) and its striking mechanics reached an impasse and broke off talks. NWAC announced that it intends to begin hiring permanent replacements for the striking union members tomorrow. DAL got slammed to below $1 per share as the WSJ reported that the beleaguered airline could file for bankruptcy protection this week. Marketwatch reported that DAL is trying to reach a deal to obtain $1.7 billion of debtor-in-possession financing from a group led by GE, $1 billion of which would be used to pay off a loan from GE. GE rose strongly all day, finishing +.50 at 34.47. NWAC lost 4.89% to close at 3.31, DAL lost 22.73% to close at .85, and GE closed +1.32% at 34.43.
This is set to be a heavy week for economic data, starting with tomorrow's release of the Trade Balance, PPI and Treasury Budget. On Wednesday, it's Retail Sales, Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization. On Thursday, we get the Empire State Index, CPI, Initial Claims, Business Inventory and Philly Fed, followed by the Current Account, Michigan Sentiment and Chicago PMI on Friday. With the convergence of so many macro factors potentially impacting the markets, including the energy rallies (and their post-Katrina declines), the authorization of relief aid and the Treasury and Fed machinations to accommodate it, and the grief at the consumer level caused by high gasoline and natural gas prices (compounded by negative savings for the first time in decades), the usual uncertainty in the markets has a sharper edge than usual. At this point, it's easy to imagine the Fed either raising or lowering the overnight rate next week, or leaving it unchanged. It's just as easy to imagine any of these 3 possibilities causing the markets to rally, tank or trend sideways. In the presence of uncertainty at these levels, it's key to stick to your trading plan and above all, respect your stops.
I personally have doubts about the markets' ability to sustain equity and bond rallies in the presence of natural gas prices above 10 and crude oil above 60, and all those other commodities that central banks cannot make more of. These doubts are further fed by the toppiness in the weekly cycles and the approaching tops in the daily cycle upphases. But general trends have to be respected, and if the Fed is going to liquefy to accommodate the various current pressures, then traders have to be prepared to follow the prices higher, wherever they may be. Jim's maxim "enter passively, exit aggressively" comes to mind. We'll be there tracking it for you in the Market Monitor.
Amer. Intl Group - AIG - cls: 61.01 chg: -0.22 stop: 57.99
Shares of AIG experienced a little bit of follow through at the open but couldn't hold its gains. This failed-rally type of action suggests that AIG will probably pull back and retest support near the $60.00 level. Wait and wach for the pull back. We would use a bounce from $60.00 as a new bullish entry point.
Picked on September 11 at $ 61.23
Centex - CTX - close: 68.79 chg: -0.84 stop: 64.99
Homebuilders turned in a mixed performance today with the DJUSHB index churning sideways for most of the session. CTX followed suite after an early morning failed rally at the $70.00 level. Right now we'd expect a little bit of profit taking back toward the simple 10-dma near $67.50. A bounce from the 10-dma could be used as a new bullish entry point.
Picked on September 01 at $ 68.25
KB Home - KBH - close: 75.88 chg: -0.34 stop: 71.50
Same story, different stock. KBH initially traded higher and broke out over resistance at its simple 50-dma but could not hold on to its gains. Shares spent most of the session churning sideways. We would look for a dip tomorrow. A bounce from the simple 10-dma could be used as a new bullish entry point.
Picked on September 07 at $ 75.89
MDC Holdings - MDC - close: 79.89 change: -0.25 stop: 74.45
Same story, part three. MDC, another homebuilder, pierced technical resistance at its simple 50-dma today but couldn't hold it. The stock's failed rally today suggests more profit taking tomorrow. Watch for MDC to find support near broken resistance at the $78.00 level. A bounce from $78 could be used as a new bullish entry point.
Picked on September 01 at $ 77.01
Noble Energy - NBL - close: 87.80 chg: -2.00 stop: 84.99
Crude oil fell below $63 a barrel and that sparked some profit taking in the oil sector. Plus, there appears to be a new spin on the hurricane Katrina story. Some analysts are suggesting that the hurricane's impact will actually lessen demand for oil. We're not so sure we agree but traders use it as an excuse to sell oil stocks today. Watch for shares of NBL to find some minor support near the $86.00 or $86.50 levels. A bounce from there could be used as a new bullish entry point. More conservative traders may want to step back and not initiate new bullish positions in oil stocks at this time.
Picked on September 11 at $ 89.80
Noble Corp - NE - close: 69.82 change: -1.83 stop: 67.25
The action in NE tells a similar story. The drop in oil produced some profit taking and the stock lost 2.5%. Watch for a bounce from the $69.00 level above its simple 40-dma. If NE trades under $69.00 we may choose to exit early to minimize our losses.
Picked on August 31 at $ 71.30
Potlatch - PCH - close: 54.31 chg: +0.28 stop: 51.99
PCH did show some strength today but more conservative traders might want to wait for PCH to breakout over its simple 50-dma before considering new bullish positions.
Picked on September 07 at $ 54.45
Fedex Corp - FDX - close: 81.05 chg: +1.29 stop: 83.51
We sort of expected an oversold bounce in FDX. Our weekend update suggested that readers watch for a rebound toward the $81 region. The real question now is whether or not the bulls can produce any sort of follow through on today's rally. Otherwise, FDX will be stuck in its current trend of lower highs and lower lows. We are not suggesting new plays until FDX trades back under the $80 level.
Picked on August 23 at $ 82.99
United Parcel Svc - UPS - cls: 68.51 chg: +0.01 stop: 72.01
UPS continues to under perform its rival FDX and the market. Our target is the $68.00-67.00 range.
Picked on August 17 at $ 71.99
Lehman Brothers - LEH - cls: 112.33 chg: +1.36 stop: 104.99
Shares of LEH are just not cooperating. They have displayed plenty of relative strength and the stock has already hit our pre-earnings target in the $112.00-112.50 range. Unfortunately, we never got an entry point to jump in. Thus, we're closing the play unopened. We'll be sure to keep an eye on LEH for future entries but we do not want to hold over the late September earnings report.
Picked on September xx at $ xx.xx <-- see TRIGGER
Carnival Corp - CCL - close: 51.00 chg: +1.30 stop: 50.26
Thank you Barron's. A Barron's article over the weekend suggested that the stocks of cruise liners have been unjustly sold off and that they could rise upwards of 20 percent over the next couple of years since business is still robust. That sparked some buying interest and short covering on Monday for CCL. Shares gapped open at $50.44 above our stop loss of $50.26 to immediately end our play. Today's move is a breakout of its bearish trend so any bears left in the stock should tread carefully.
Picked on August 10 at $ 51.79
Electronic Arts - ERTS - close: 59.09 change: +2.97 stop: 60.01
Ouch! An unexpected upgrade to a "buy" rating by Wedbush Morgan sent shares of ERTS soaring on Monday. The stock broke through technical resistance at its 50-dma and 200-dma on big volume. The rally did stall at psychological resistance at the $60.00. This also happens to coincide with Point & Figure chart resistance near $60.00 and it coincides with a trendline of lower highs starting at the late July peak. More aggressive traders may want to hang on and see what happens. The P&F chart still points to a $50 target. However, today's gain has broken the short-term bearish trend. We're going to exit now to avoid further losses.
Picked on August 30 at $ 56.41
THETA, VEGA and RHO - The Greeks What really do they mean?It's all Greek to me - Part 3 of a 3 part series
The Theory Behind the Practice
Just as we learned the fundamentals of the workings of DELTA in Part I of the series and GAMMA in Part II of the series, we will the remaining lesser known of the Greeks. These are THETA, VEGA and RHO, which we will discuss individually in this article. In previous articles we made references to how time affects an option as it gets closer to its expiration date and that the value of that option will decrease in price because of that reduction in the time left until that option expires. We also learned that every option has time value calculated in its premium, and finally that all out-of-the-money options are made up of TIME VALUE in their entirety. That rate or velocity that time value erodes or decays is referred to as THETA.
Theta is basically, the rate at which an option losses its value as the option gets closer to expiration. THETA, when calculated, is usually done by a figure quoted in a certain number of points per day that the option premium will decay. The unique thing that is inherent in THETA is that the loss of value of the option premium because of time decay is based on the assumption that there is no change in the market price of the option or the conditions in which the option is being traded. In other words, if you could isolate time value and measure strictly as an individual variable and assumed the price of the option did not move, because the value of its underlying security did not move and all other market factors were nil and void with no influence on the stock, that would be a true measure of how THETA functions. The reason all those other factors are not considered is because they would influence the price of the options and affect THETA. (Example: volatility all of a sudden picks up in a stock, or earnings rumors, buy-out rumors, various national economic news). All of these factors would affect THETA, and that is why THETA when analyzed has to be looked at as if these other market factors were not in the equation. THETA works both ways in relationship to a buyer or a seller. If you are a buyer of and option, you want the option with a low THETA, which has a very small erosion of premium as time goes by. On the other hand, if you are a seller of an option, you want a rapid erosion of the premium, giving the buyer less time to make a profit and increasing, you as the buyer, quicker returns.
Theta is often most important in examining spreads. As you decide which spread to put on you could examine THETA and make a determination whether the time value within the spread is going to work for you or against you. By using THETA you can help better determine spreads that give you the best time value disposition and which spreads would be better for you ultimately when it comes down to making an educated decision as to which spread scenario might be best, when you have several choices to choose from. This could be important, especially if you are a buyer or when examining the long side of your spread, whether bullish or bearish.
Vega has had various names associated with it over time, such as Kappa or Omega. We will refer to it has VEGA. VEGA, in brief, is a value given in points that measures change in volatility. It measures a change in theoretical value for each 1-point variation in volatility.
Vega tells you how much an option will increase based on an increase in the volatility of option and the underlying stock issue.
We you recall an number of your own personal option trades, as the volatility increased in you option, so did the premium and as volatility decreased or slowed down, the premium of the option decreased. Vega's main use is to help and determine how much risk you have from volatility increases and decreases. Remember you may have only several days to go on an option with little of no volatility, then all of a sudden some market event, like an "surprise" earning report could affect the volatility either positively or negatively and exaggerate the price of the option even though there may be only a few days left before its expiration. The net effect would be that option being "grossly" overpriced due to volatility from interest in the option.
RHO, which is how an option reacts to changes in interest rates, this Greek has a minor effect on pricing, but does have an effect on premium, even if negligible. The RHO effect is similar to rises in interest. As interest rates go up, the option premium must increase to keep the options in competition with other investment vehicles. The premiums that the seller receives needs to be at a higher rate to compete with the other alternatives that an investor has in the investment market to choose from. Although is part of the Greek family is importance for 95% of you will be minimal at best.
The Greeks are used by many traders to determine the various factors that I related to in the above text. Below you will find an example of the Greeks we discussed and how they look to traders and followers of their use.
FIGURE 1-1: EXAMPLE OF THETA, VEGA and RHO
FIGURE 2-2: EXAMPLE OF ALL FIVE (5) OF THE GREEKS AS USED AND SEEN IN A PRICING MODEL OF A STOCK WITH VARIOUS OPTION PRICINGS
The Bottom Line
As a trader, you can see there are many, many trading tools that are available to attempt to give traders any type of edge in their attempt to maximize their trading profits. The use of Greeks are just one of the many tools available to traders to help achieve that goal. However, always remember, even the best financial tools are not going to substitute for excellent judgment, good risk/reward analysis and a sound investment philosophy. As a trader, always try and expand your horizons by examining new tools and philosophies that could potentially serve to increase your bottom line.
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